Theoretical Framework

Innovation, the spirit on making things better and more sustainable, is essentially a transformation strategy for developing countries in shaping their competitive standings. In this matter, the “Triple Helix” concept comprises three basic elements:

  1. University/research and development institutions, with role of producing technological innovations, sits on a equivalence with the industrial and governance entities in bringing improvement in productivity of a knowledge-based society of developing countries;
  2. A movement towards the three major players, in which innovation is prompt to advance economic progress and to sustaining it. The innovation policies borne increasingly to more as interaction rather than a strict prescription from government;
  3. The developing countries now is facing to emphasize for each of the sphere-institution (of academics, business, and government) to take more active role, therefore advancing their potential sources in innovation.

Initially, each had been perceived to work solely, often completely exclusive to one another. Meanwhile, in the “Triple Helix” concept, the industrial sector operates as the locus of production; government as the source of contractual relations that guarantee stable interactions and exchange; the university as a source of new knowledge and technology, the generative principle of knowledge-based economies.

There have been increasing evidences that innovation processes are distributed across such boundaries of the three entities.

The pace of globalization, on the other hand, leaves the developing countries with even fewer degrees of freedom. The dynamics of international trade and investments while providing great resort for many entities to run their operation, often broaden significant imperils for the developing countries to advance their own technological capacities.

In spite of this, globalization also display intensified occurrence of enhanced enactment of innovation systems. In such schemes, innovation systems are embedded in market processes, while the ensuing practices are driven to determine the payoffs to innovation (that generate the resources for innovation), and that ascertain further economic expansion and general welfare amelioration.

The situation captures the portray where developing countries are increasingly aware for they must deal with narrower and less complete domestic linkages, all the way to forcing them to maximize the innovative interrelations among each of the constituent of academics/R&D institutions-business-government.

Nowadays, in both developing and developed countries, case-examples of such uniting establishments are yielded through the embarking of the incubation of technology-based firms (science parks) by universities and/or borne through government initiatives. The infrastructures then become a device for generating the public’s awareness of the importance of knowledge and role of the universities/research and development institutions, in handling pragmatic/entrepreneurial issues.

Innovations systems are complex systems, where each involved “Triple Helix” actor experiences growth of knowledge on viewing each other, and hence the learning effects continually shift the relations between the policy cause and policy affect altogether. The implantation of innovation consensus in the updated version of the “Triple Helix” has signifying the intention to increasing the capacity to adapt to the market, hence enhancing the society — rather than to become the ‘dictators’ of the general public.

Therefore, Triple Helix concept could be seen as a convenient formulation of democratic developing countries in engaging participation of wider societal members on making self-transformation, through the enhancement of the relations of the academics, business, and government elements.